Since the 1970s N. Katherine Hayles has published over 100 book chapters and journal articles covering a wide range of topics from Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night and Thomas Pynchon’s Gravity Rainbow; to chaos theory, postmodernism, and gender; to textuality, narrative, virtuality, and born-digital literature; to cognition, brain imaging, and machine reading. They have contributed to a body of work that has focused on literature, science, and technology; electronic textuality; modern and postmodern fiction; and critical theory and science fiction.

Articles by Decade

Fearing the Wrong Boogeyman,” blog sponsored by Chung-Wai Literary Quarterly, Taiwan, in Chinese and English. Forthcoming 2021. Draft text here.

Three Species Challenges,” in The Ethos of Digital Environments: Technology, Literary Theory and Philosophy, edited by Susanna Lindberg and Hanna-Riikke Roine. New York: Routledge, 2021. Pp. 27-46. Draft version here. Consult published version for final copy.

Microbiomimesis: Bacteria, Our Cognitive Collaborators,” Critical Inquiry (Summer 2021), forthcoming.

Textual and Real-Life Spaces: Expanding Theoretical Frameworks,” Studia Neophilologica, (forthcoming 2021). Draft version here. Consult published version for final copy.

Unthought” in Uncertain Archives: Critical Keywords for Big Data, eds. Nanna Thylstrup, Daniela Agostinho, Annie Ring, Catherine D’Ignazio and Kristin Veel. Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2021. Pp. 541-550. Draft text here. Consult published version for final copy.

Cognition,” in Information Keywords, eds. Michele Kennerly, Samuel Frederick, and Jonathan Abel. New York: Columbia University Press, 2021. Pp. 72-88. Draft text here. Consult published version for final copy.

Inside Out, Outside In: Recursive Dynamics in Posthumanism and in Nam June Paik’s Artworks,” in Coevolution: Cybernetics to Posthuman, NJP Reader #7, edited Sooyoung Lee. Seoul, South Korea: Uii Won Gi, 2018. Pp. 399-413.

Novel Corona: Posthuman Virus,” Critical Inquiry “Posts from the Pandemic,” April 17, 2020. Text here. Also available at
Can Computers Create Meanings? A Cyber/Bio/Semiotic Perspective,” Critical Inquiry 46.1 (2019): 32-55.

Morphing Malabou,” review of Catherine Malabou, Morphing Intelligence: From IQ Measurements to Artificial Brains, Critical Inquiry reviews online (2019). Text here. Also available at

N. Katherine Hayles and Tony D. Sampson, "Unthought Meets the Assemblage Brain,” Capacious: Journal for Emerging Affect Inquiry. [full text]

The Neurodynamics of Technically Mediated Motion: Perceptual vs. Conceptual Animation in Artworks of Nam June Paik and Bill Viola,” Animation (forthcoming 2019).

Writing//Posthuman: The Literary Text as Cognitive Assemblage,” Theoretical Studies in Literature and Art (forthcoming 2018).

Literary Texts as Cognitive Assemblages: The Case of Electronic Literature,” Electronic Book Review (2018). [full text]

Human and Machine Cultures of Reading: A Cognitive Assemblage Approach,” PMLA 133.5 (October 2018).

Unthought,” Nanna Thylstrup, Daniela Agostinho, Annie Ring, Catherine D’Ignazio, and Kristin Veel, eds., Uncertain Archives (forthcoming 2019).

Cognition,” Information: Keywords, eds. Jonathan E. Abel, Samuel Frederick, and Michele Kennerly, (New York: Columbia University Press, forthcoming 2019) Information (series), General Ed. Eric Hayot.

Inside Out, Outside In: Recursive Dynamics in Posthumanism and in Nam June Paik’s Artworks,” translated into Korean by Seongeun Kim et al., Publications of Nam June Paik Art Center, 2017.

Cognitive Assemblages: Technical Agency and Human Interactions,” Critical Inquiry 43.1 (Autumn 2016): 32-55.

The Cognitive Nonconscious: Enlarging the Mind of the Humanities,” Critical Inquiry 42.4 (Summer 2016): 783-807.

Maxing Out the Novel” (Review of Stefano Ercolino’s The Maximalist Novel), Novel 49.3 (Sept. 2016): 519-22.

With Birgit Van Paymbroek, “Enwebbed Complexities: The Posthumanities, Digital Media, and New Feminist Materialism. An Interview with N. Katherine Hayles,” Journal of Diversity and Gender Studies 2.1-2 (2015): 21-29.

Searching for Purpose” (Review of Kim Stanley Robinson’s Aurora and Neal Stephenson’s Seveneves), Public Books (Sept. 15, 2015). [full text]

N.Katherine Hayles and Holger Pötzsche, “Posthumanism, Technogenesis, and Digital Technologies: A Conversation with Katherine Hayles,” Fibreculture 23 (2014). [full text]

Greg Egan’s Quarantine and Teranesia: Contributions to the Millennial Reassessment of Consciousness and the Cognitive Nonconscious,” Science-Fiction Studies 42.1 (March 2015): 56-77. Available here

Brain Imagining and the Epistemology of Vision: Daniel Suarez’s Epistemology of Vision,” Modern-Fiction Studies 61.2 (2015): 320-334.

Cognition Everywhere: The Rise of the Cognitive Nonconscious and the Costs of Consciousness,” New Literary History 45.2 (Spring 2014): 199-220.

The Black Hole of Quantum Theory” (Review of Samuel Chase Coale’s Quirks of the Quantum), Novel 48.1 (Spring 2015) : 148-150.

Stanislaw Lem’s Summa Technologiae: Mirror Text to The Cyberiad,” Science-Fiction Studies 40.3 (November 2013): 417-427.

N. Katherine Hayles, Patrick Jagoda, and Patrik LeMieux, “Speculation: Financial Games and Derivative Worlding in a Transmedia Era,” Critical Inquiry (Spring 2014, Special Issue “Comics and Media)” : 220-236.

Rewiring Literary Criticism” (Review of Mark C. Taylor’s Rewiring the Real: In Conversations with William Gaddis, Richard Power, Mark Danielewski, and Don DeLillo), Los Angeles Review of Books. [full text]

Speculative Aesthetics and Object Oriented Inquiry (OOI),” Speculations: A Journal of Speculative Realism 5 (May 2014).

Combining Close and Distant Reading: Jonathan Safran Coer’s Tree of Codes and the Aesthetic of Bookishness,” PMLA 128.1 (2013): 226-231.

How We Read: Close, Hyper, Machine,” ADE Bulletin 150 (2011). [full text - no longer available]

Material Entanglements: Steven Hall’s The Raw Shark Texts as Slipstream Novel,” Science-Fiction Studies #113 (38.1, March 2011):115-133.

How We Became Posthuman: Ten Years On” (interviewed by Arthur Piper), Paragraph 33.3 (September 2010): 318-323. [full text - no longer available]

After Shocks:  Posthuman Ambivalence,” Postmedieval:  A Journal of Medieval Cultural Studies (April 2010): 262-271.

N. Katherine Hayles and James J. Pulizzi, “Narrating Consciousness,” History of the Human Sciences 21.3 (2010): 131-148. [full text - no longer available]

Waking up to the Surveillance Society,” Surveillance and Society 6.3 (2—9). [full text - no longer available]

N. Katherine Hayles and Todd Gannon, “Virtual Architecture, Actual Media.” [full text - no longer available]

RFID: Human Agency and Meaning in Information-Intensive Environments,” Theory, Culture and Society, 26.2/3 (2009): 1-24.  Reprinted in Throughout, edited by Ulrik Eckman (forthcoming MIT Press, 2011).  Reprinted in Beyond the Screen: Transformations of Literary Structures, Interfaces and Genres.  Edited by Jörgen Schafer and  Peter Gendolla (Bielefed, Germany: Transcript Publishers, 2010).
Wrestling with Transhumanism,” The Global Spiral (June 5, 2008).

Hyper and Deep Attention:  The Generational Divide in Cognitive Modes,” Profession 2007 (2007): 187-199.

Narrative and Database:  Natural Symbionts,” PMLA 122.5 (October 2007): 1603-1608.

Intermediation:  The Pursuit of a Vision,” New Literary History 38.1 (Winter 2007): 99-125. Available here

The Future of Literature,” Collection Management (forthcoming fall 2007).

Revealing and Transforming:  How Electronic Literature Re-Values Computational Practice,” Performance Research 11.4 (December 2006): 5-16.

Traumas of Code,” Critical Inquiry 33.1 (Autumn 2006): 136-157.  Reprinted, Digital an Other Virtualities: Renegotiating the Image, ed. Anthony Bryant and Griselda Pollock. London;  I. B. Truris, 2010: 23-41. Available here

Unfinished Work:  From Cyborg to Cognisphere,” Theory, Culture and Society 23 (2006): 159-166.

Commentary: The Search for the Human,” New Literary History 36, no. 2 (Spring 2005): 327-333.

"Electronic Literature: What Is It?”  Electronic Literature Organization.  Translated into Korean by Jiyeon Kim, Text@Media , 2010: 18-37.

Narrating Bits:  Encounters between Humans and Intelligent Machines,” [etext version] Vectors 1 (March 2005); [print version] Comparative Critical Studies 2.2 (2005):165-90. [full text - no longer available]

Nathan Brown and N. Katherine Hayles, “Science and Representation,” Oxford Encyclopedia Of Science and Society.  2005.

Refiguring the Posthuman,” Comparative Literature Studies 41.3 (2004): 311-316. Available here

Print is Flat, Code is Deep:  The Importance of Media-Specific Analysis,” Poetics Today 25.1 (Spring 2004): 67-90.

N. Katherine Hayles and Nicholas Gessler, “The Slipstream of Mixed Reality:  Unstable Ontologies and Semiotic Markers in The Thirteenth Floor, Dark City, and Mulholland Drive,” PMLA (April 2004). Available here

Translating Media:  Why We Should Rethink Textuality,” Yale Journal of Criticism, vol. 6, no. 3 (2003): 263-290.

Afterword:  The Human in the Posthuman,” Cultural Critique 53 (Winter 2003): 134-137. Available here

Deeper into the Machine:  Learning to Speak Digital,” Computers and Composition 19 (2002): 371-386.  Reprinted in revised form with images in Culture Machine 5 (Feb. 2003) and in State of the Arts: The Proceedings of the Electronic Literature Organization’s 2002 State of the Arts Symposium, edited by Scott Rettberg (Los Angeles:  Electronic Literature Organization), 13-38.

Saving the Subject:  Mediation in House of Leaves,” American Literature 74, no. 4 (December 2002): 779-807.

Is Utopia Obsolete?,”  Peace Review 14, no. 2 (June 2002): 133-140.

"Flesh and Metal: Reconfiguring the Mindbody in Virtual Environments," Configurations 10, no. 2 (Spring 2002):297-329. Available here

Metaphoric Networks in Lexia to Perplexia,” Electronic Art and Animation Catalog, SIGGRAPH 2001 (ACM 2001):31-34.  Reprinted in Digital Creativity 12:3 (2001): 133-139.

"The Complexities of Seriation,” PMLA 117:1 (2002):117-121. Available here

Desiring Agency:  Enabling Constraints in Dawkins and Deleuze/Guattari,” SubStance 30.1,2 (January 2001): 144-160.

The Materiality of the Medium:  Hypertext Narrative in Print and New Media,” Narrative 9.1 (January 2001): 21-39.

Visualizing the Posthuman,” Art Journal 59, no. 3 ( Fall 2000): 50-54. Available here

"Adam Ross:  Paranoid Utopias," Art/Text 70 (August-October 2000): 62-65.

"The Invention of Copyright and the Birth of Monsters:  Flickering Connectivities in Shelley Jackson's Patchwork Girl," Journal of Postmodern Culture 10.2 (January 2000). Available here

"Schizoid Android:  Cybernetics and the Mid-Sixties Novels of Philip K. Dick," Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts, 8 (1998): 22-45. Reprinted in Spanish in Revista de Communicação e linguagens, edited by Francisco Rui Cádima and Jorge Martins Rosa.  Reglógio D’Άgua Editores (2001): 107-142.
"Simulated Narratives:  What Virtual Creatures Can Teach Us," Critical Inquiry 26, no. 1 (Autumn 1999):  1-26.

"The Illusion of Autonomy and the Fact of Recursivity: Virtual Ecologies, Entertainment, and Virtual Jest," New Literary History 30, no. 3 (Summer 1999): 675-697.

"Schizoid Android:  Cybernetics and the Mid-Sixties Novels of Philip K. Dick," Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts, 8 (1998): 22-45. Reprinted in Spanish in Revista de Communicação e linguagens, edited by Francisco Rui Cádima and Jorge Martins Rosa.  Reglógio D’Άgua Editores (2001): 107-142.

"The Posthuman Body:  Inscription and Incorporation in Galatea 2.2 and Snow Crash," Configurations 2 (1997): 241-266.

"Corporeal Anxiety in Dictionary of the Khazars:  What Books Talk about in the Late Age of Print When They Talk About Losing Their Bodies," Modern Fiction Studies 43 (Fall 1997): 800-820.

"Boundary Work with a Vengeance," Arachne, 2, no. 1 (Spring 1995): 3-15.

"Making the Cut: The Interplay of Narrative and System, or What System Theory Can't See," Cultural Critique  No. 30 (Spring 1995): 71-100.  Reprinted in Observing Complexity:  Systems Theory and Postmodernity, edited by William Rasch and Cary Wolfe.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000: 137-162.

"Theory of a Different Order: A Conversation with Niklas Luhmann and Katherine Hayles," Cultural Critique  31 ( Fall 1995): 7-37. Reprinted in Observing Complexity:  Systems Theory and Postmodernity, edited by William Rasch and Cary Wolfe.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press, 2000: 111-136.

"Boundary Disputes: Homeostasis, Reflexivity, and the Foundations of Cybernetics," Configurations: A Journal For Literature, Science, and Technology  3 ( 1994): 441-467.  Reprinted in Virtual Realities and Their Discontents, edited by Robert Markley. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.

"Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers," October 66 (Fall 1993): 66-92. Reprinted in Electronic Culture: Technology and Visual Representation, edited by Timothy Druckrey (New York:  Aperture, 1996), pp. 259-278; in The Feminism and Visual Culture Reader, edited by Amelia Jones (London: Routledge, 2003): 497-506 in Visual Culture Reader, 2nd edition, edited by Nicholas Mirzoeff. London and New York:  Routledge, 2003: 152-160; and in French in Connexions:  Art, Reseaux, Media, edited by Annick Burgeaud and Nathalie Magnan,.  Paris:  École Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts, 2002: 507-544.

"Chaotics: Culture and Chaos," Louisiana Revy 33, no. 2 (February 1993): 6-9.

"The Materiality of Informatics," Configurations: A Journal of Literature,Science and Technology 1 (Winter 1993): 147-70.  Reprinted in Issues In Integrative Studies 10 (1992): 121-144.

"Gender Encoding in Fluid Mechanics: Masculine Channels and Feminine Flows," differences  4 (Summer 1992): 16-44.

"Constrained Constructivism: Locating Scientific Inquiry in the Theater of Representation," New Orleans Review, 18 (1991): 76-85.  Reprinted in Realism and Representation,: Essays on the Problem of Realism in Relation to Science, Literature, and Culture ed. George Levine (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), 27-43.

"'Who Was Saved?': Families, Snitches, and Recuperation in Pynchon's Vineland," Critique, 32 (1990): 77-92.  Reprinted in The Vineland Papers: Critical Takes on Pynchon's Novel, edited by Geoffrey Green, Donald J. Greiner, and Larry McCaffery (Normal, IL: Dalkey Archive Press, 1993).

"Postmodern Parataxis:  Embodied Texts, Weightless Information," American Literary History, 2 (1990): 394-421.

"Designs on the Body: Cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, and the Play of Metaphor," History of the Human Sciences, 3 (1990): 212-228.
"Two Voices, One Channel: Equivocation in Michel Serres," SubStance 57 (1988): 3-11.

"Chaos as Orderly Disorder: Shifting Ground in Literature and Science," New Literary History 2 (Winter 1989): 305-322. Reprinted in Twentieth Century Literary Criticism, vol. 90 (New York: Gale Publishing Company, 2002).

"Text Out of Context: Situating Postmodernism in an Information Society," Discourse 9 (Spring-Summer 1987): 24-36.

"Space for Writing: Stanislaw Lem and the Dialectic 'That Guides My Pen,'" Science-Fiction Studies 13 (November, 1986): 292-312. Anthologized in Jerzy Jarzebski, ed., Teksty Drugie  3 (1992): 5-29.

"Anger In Different Voices: Carol Gilligan and The Mill on the Floss," Signs 12 (Autumn, 1986): 23-39.

N. K. Hayles and Mary Eiser, "Coloring Gravity's Rainbow," Pynchon Notes, 16 (Spring, 1985): 3-24.

"Cosmology and the Point of (No) Return in Gravity's Rainbow," Markham Review, 12 (1983): 73-77.

"The Ambivalent Approach: D. H. Lawrence and the New Physics," Mosaic, 15 (September, 1982): 89-108. Available here

"Making a Virtue of Necessity: Pattern and Freedom in Nabokov's Ada", Contemporary Literature, 23 (Winter, 1982): 32-51.

"An Imperfect Art: Competing Patterns in More Than Human", Extrapolation, 22 (Spring, 1981): 13-24.

N. K. Hayles and Kathryn Rindskoff, "The Shadow of Violence," The Journal of Popular Film, 8 (1981): 2-8.

"Sexual Disguise in Cymbeline", Modern Language Quarterly, 41 (September, 1980): 231-247.
"Sexual Disguise in As You Like It and Twelfth Night", Shakespeare Survey 32, ed. Kenneth Muir (Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press, 1979) 63-72.

F. C. Anson, N. K. Hayles and R. D. Frisbee, "The Absence of a Detectable Potential-Dependence of the Transfer of Coefficient in the Cr+2/Cr+3 Reaction," Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 117 (April, 1970): 477-82.